The water and electrolyte balance of the body is influenced by three hormones: antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone, and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). They are responsible for the different processes in regulation, and one of the hormones’ removal can affect the whole system. To start, the antidiuretic hormone’s (ADH) primary role is to promote fluid conservation. It is released by the pituitary gland when blood osmolarity (solute concentration) increases (Maher & Macnab, 2018). To lower the amount of solute, ANP raises the reabsorption of water and stimulates thirst. As a result, a person may drink more water, and their urine is likely to become concentrated (Maher & Macnab, 2018). If this hormone is not released when necessary (namely, in diabetes insipidus), kidneys do not reabsorb water, and a person excretes significant amounts of diluted urine (Maher & Macnab, 2018). On the other hand, the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) leads to excessive water retention and severe health risks (Cui et al., 2019).
The other part of the water and electrolyte balance is regulated by aldosterone. This hormone increases sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion (Hlavacova & Jezova, 2019). Similar to ADH, aldosterone’s function is to support homeostasis. If the blood that reaches the adrenal cortex does not contain enough sodium, the adrenal gland releases aldosterone. Sodium conservation is as vital as water conservation, as it helps regulate blood pressure and volume.
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) plays the opposite function to the two hormones mentioned above. ANP is released from the atria when blood volume or pressure is elevated. It influences the kidneys to lower aldosterone and ADH release (Maher & Macnab, 2018). As a result, one’s thirst is decreased, water and sodium retention levels are reduced, and blood pressure and volume are lowered. Thus, the levels of ANP are related to cardiovascular diseases, and their production can help one determine the problems with water and electrolyte balance (Volpe et al., 2019).
Cui, H., He, G., Yang, S., Lv, Y., Jiang, Z., Gang, X., & Wang, G. (2019). Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and cerebral salt-wasting syndromes in neurological patients. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 13, 1170.
Hlavacova, N., & Jezova, D. (2019). View on aldosterone and the brain revisited. In B. Harvey (Ed.), Aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor: Cell biology to translational medicine (pp. 1–11). IntechOpen.
Maher, W., & Macnab, R. (2018). Regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine, 19(5), 245-248.
Volpe, M., Battistoni, A., & Rubattu, S. (2019). Natriuretic peptides in heart failure: Current achievements and future perspectives. International Journal of Cardiology, 281, 186-189.