Job Analysis as a Human Resources Tool
Defined as the “process of obtaining information about jobs”, job analysis is vital in the determination of the tasks which comprise the job and of the skills, knowledge, abilities, and responsibilities required of the holder for successful job performance. The end product of a job analysis is a written description of the actual requirements of the job. In almost every human resource management program, there are some types of information that is required and it can be achieved using job analysis.
This is why an appropriately executed job analysis could be beneficial for the company. This is because an organization will be able to undertake the following essential processes like organizational structure and design, human resource planning, job evaluation and compensation, recruitment, selection, placement, training/development, career path planning, engineering design/methods improvement, labor relations, performance management, safety, job design, vocational guidance/counseling and job classification systems.
For example, an organization constantly seeks to improve organizational design and structure to make it more efficient or to improve quality. The redesign requires detailed information about the existing jobs that can be achieved through job analysis. In addition, preparing the redesign is similar to analyzing a job that does not yet exist. Another example of the importance of job analysis is in the human resource planning. As planners analyze human resource needs and how to meet those needs, they must have accurate information about the levels of skill required in various jobs, so that they can tell what kinds of human resources will be needed. In selection, job analysis is needed to identify the most qualified applicants for various positions, decision makers need to know what tasks the individuals must perform, as well as the necessary knowledge, skills, and abilities.
Besides helping human resource professionals, job analysis could help supervisors and other managers carry out their duties. Data from job analysis can help managers identify the types of work in their units, as well as provide information about the work flow process, so that managers can evaluate whether work is done in the most efficient way. Job analysis information also supports managers as they make hiring decisions, review performance, and recommend rewards. Job analysis has various uses for the business organization.
It allows job structure examination to identify possible productivity increases. Using this, managers can also identify inefficient job structures and plan productivity improvement. For example, the manager can identify components of lower value to the organization than the job as a whole for each job in the unit. When lower-valued tasks are grouped, where feasible, it can form planned replacement job structures. When there is turnover, the manager replaces a higher-valued (higher-paid) job with the new lower-valued (lower-paid) job. This technology facilitates this type of concrete productivity planning within every work unit. Another use of job analysis is that a productivity gain would be realized by HR departments that are able to do much more with the same job information. Multipurpose job analysis systems eliminate the need for redundant information gathering and reporting for compensation, career planning, staffing, training-needs assessment, and other personnel functions.