Phonological Awareness in Individuals With Reading Disabilities
Phonological awareness refers to the recognition of language sounds and serves as a significant component of phonological processing. Poor readers demonstrate lower phonological awareness since they have challenges with phoneme segmentation during reading. Children with reading disabilities are likely to have problems with pronouncing unknown words, which means that they are not able to read automatically. Some students may lack the understanding of the concept of sound, having no idea how the print words are linked to the spoken language. Therefore, the instruction in phoneme awareness is advantageous for facilitating vocabulary and word consciousness development. If a student recognizes the alphabetic code, it is more likely to he or she would have fewer difficulties in the process of reading.
Syntactic awareness is defined as the ability to comprehend the fundamental grammatical structure of a language. There are two syntactic awareness tasks, such as word-order correction and grammatical correction, which are used to examine reading ability. The research shows that syntactic awareness relates to both word reading and understanding, aiding in recognition skills. The main role of this type of awareness is to enable the use of syntactic patterns in decoding unknown words. Moreover, it contributes to applying the contextual review to read words and integrate them into the text. Those students who have low syntactic awareness may have a reading disability. In 9-year-old students, for example, syntactic awareness can be measured to assess the accuracy of the reading.
In the process of reading, working memory is thought to be responsible for rapid automated reading and rapid automated naming. The processing and storage of information are two more functions that are controlled by working memory, the deficit of which are characteristic of reading disability. The limited space of working memory impedes the organization and integration of reading and comprehension skills. The key problem is associated with the failure to use short-term memory, and it impacts phonological awareness, sight word recognition, decoding, and word understanding. When a student tries to recall reading rules or apply related skills, the failure to do it can be regarded as one of the expressions of reading impairment.