The Major Structures and Functions of the Hindbrain, Midbrain, and Forebrain
The Hindbrain or rhombencephalon is located a little over the spinal cord and is a developmental classification of parts of the vertebrates as forming part of the central nervous system. The hindbrain functions collectively in coordinating sleep patterns, equilibrium, posture, and motor activity as also regulates some unconscious but vital functions such as blood circulation and breathing. The brain system comprises the hindbrain and the midbrain while the forebrain forms the two comparative symmetrical parts which are known as the cerebral hemispheres of the brain.
The hindbrain is made up of the medulla, pons, and cerebellum. The midbrain can be divided into the dorsal or the upper half which is also known as the rectum, and the tegmentum which is the bottom half of the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid is present in the midbrain which is found in a small channel in the midline which is also understood as being the cerebral aqueduct. The midbrain has important functions in controlling the visual and auditory systems as also the movement of the eyes. Some parts of the midbrain area called substantia nigra and red nucleus which take care of body movements.
The degeneration of substantia nigra in the midbrain is related to the cause of Parkinson’s disease. The forebrain is the large area in the front of the human brain, is supposed to be the most advanced, and is considered to be the most recently evolved structure of the brain. It is in fact the part of the brain which expands from the frontal portion of the neural tube and is the biggest partition of the brain that is inclusive of the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex. It has the ability to perform high levels of intellectual functions.