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The Problem of Cervical Cancer


The work explores the problem of cervical cancer as a critical threat to female health. According to the medical studies, the disease stems from the abnormal growth of cells on the cervix. The virus, which stimulates cervix cancer development, is called human papillomavirus (HPV). It is critical to identify that HPV group includes a number of various viruses, which differ through their contamination target areas as well as the level of risk. Specifically, warts, which appear as the follow-ups of contamination, may appear on different parts of the human body. Thus, some groups of HPV evoke tongue and lips warts, the others target the areas of hands or feet. The dangerous group of the virus may predetermine the appearance of warts on genital and anal areas. The problem is primarily correlated with HPV 6 and HPV 11. Still, the mentioned cohorts of HPV rarely evoke cervical cancer and can be called low-risk viruses. In contrast to them, the group of high-risk types predetermines rash contamination and is related to cancer. These are such viruses as HPV 33, HPV 16, and HPV 31. The group of high-risk HPV is not linked exclusively to cervix cancer; the contamination is often followed by anal, penile, and vaginal cancer (Miller et al., 2015).

The experts acknowledge that this problem takes its roots from sexual contacts. Thus, the illness refers to sexually transmitted viruses. It is critical to emphasize that HPV contamination does not provoke cancer of the cervix at once. Thus, often, the disease flows into genital wart, which can be easily treated at the initial stages of the diagnosis. The illness may be identified with the use of the Pap test, which predetermines the extraction of cell material from the surface of the cervix. If testing reveals any cell modifications, the condition may be eliminated initially. The fundamental symptoms of cervix cell growth include vagina bleeding, which are not characteristic for the specific phase, pain during sex, and sharp pains in the lower part of the belly (Cervical Cancer Health Center, 2014). However, it should be pointed out that the identical signs may stem from some other health problems such as various vaginal infections. Nevertheless, the identification of one of the named symptoms has to be followed by Pap test taking since ignoring the signs might stipulate threatening health conditions. If the contamination leads to the development of cervical cancer, it still can be treated at the primary stages of contagion. The specialists claim that sexual transmission does not represent the only way, in which this type of cancer can be developed. Thus, it is suggested that extensive smoking might catalyze the condition.

The suggestion of identifying smoking as one of the basic reasons for the development of cervical cancer has long been questioned throughout the history of medicine. Some experts claimed that frequent tobacco consummation has carcinogenesis nature and might evoke the disease. The others are persuaded that this complication may appear only in combination with some other hormonal problems, or it can be intensified if the person is already contaminated with the virus. Therefore, in this work, the contradiction of the cancer of cervix as a sexually-transmitted disease is contemplated. Specifically, we dwell on the clinical investigations of the disease signs and analyze the effects of particular aspects on the development of cancer (Beral, 2015).

The problem of cervical cancer, as well as its prevention, is targeted at both local and international platforms. For instance, the proponents of the American Cancer Society developed a complex guideline system on cervix cancer early detection. Within this initiative, the experts suggest that every female should start taking Pap tests from the age of 21. It does not depend on the lifestyle and sexual activity of a young woman since there is a theory, according to which sexual transmission is not the only source of cervical cancer. Second, it is suggested that women in their 30s are obliged to take HPV tests in combination with Pap tests since the latter might provide poor identification of the low-risk viruses in specific situations. Still, HPV tests should not be taken more often than once in 5 years since they might impose some threats to female health. Third, the program provides separate guidelines for females, who have suppressed immune systems. The clinical recommendations suggest that this group of women has to consult their health care teams on the frequency of Pap test taking since these females are highly susceptible to contamination. Moreover, there are some limitations in cervix cancer screening. Mainly, the females, who reach the age of 65 years, have to stop testing unless they had some pre-cancer exposition in the past. The women, who suffered from hysterectomy, may take Pap tests only after consulting a specialist (American Cancer Society, 2015).

The modern medical initiatives investigate not only the methods of cervix cancer clinical detention but offer the theoretical research studies on the occurrence of the disease in various parts of the world. Such projects have critical meaning for they help to identify, which countries require special assistance in eliminating the problem. Thus, the second question, which is regarded in this paper, concerns the controversy of the geographical spread of cervical cancer.

Literature Review

Cancer of the Cervix: Symptoms, Identification, and Prevention

The research synthesis estimates the problem of cervical cancer. The primary point, which defines the further investigation, employs a complex identification of the basic signs, symptoms, and cause factors that define the disease. The websites, which are governed by the leading medical associations of the world, provide the full accounts of the clinical picture of cervix cancer. In this work, two web resources, which provide a primary insight into the topic, are employed. Thus, the Cervical Cancer Health Center website offers a thematic unit that is dedicated to the cancer of the cervix. Specifically, the information, which is drawn from the resource, illustrates the general clinical overview of the HPV contamination signs. Moreover, it suggests the fundamental treatment methods that may be employed both on the stages of initial warts development and at the advanced stages of cancer progress. Finally, the website provides several thematic articles, which discuss some critical subsidiary implications of cervix cancer development. Mainly, the provisions for personal risks testing are given: the authors claim that every person has an individual vulnerability to the disease, which may be analyzed if one estimates several aspects of life. The center also reveals some connections between Pap test taking and describes the link between the nutritional properties of green tea, which hinders the development of cervical cancer. The web resource of the American Cancer Society is employed with an aim of identifying the prevention of cervix cancer. It provides several guidelines on female health support as well as lists the ways, in which a woman may treat the problem.

Cause Implications: Estimating Smoking Influences

Despite the foregone conclusion, according to which, cancer of the cervix is predetermined exclusively by sexual contact, there is some practical evidence of some subsidiary cancer-related concerns. The estimation of the basic causes, which evoke the problem, is provided with the support of one evidence-based article. Specifically, the study by Fonseca-Moutinho (2014), “Smoking and cervical cancer,” provides an analysis of tobacco-related concerns, which define a clinical picture of carcinogenesis practices. The research study employed a qualitative estimation of the clinical databases, which reported the case descriptions of cervix cancer occurrence. The work, which was used as a supportive material, targeted the molecular mechanisms, which affect a modification of the cervix cells under the influence of nicotine or cocaine. The DNA methylation was analyzed as the primary mechanism, which may be induced by the HPV virus susceptibility. The wood smoke vulnerability was discussed, for the authors of the article made a suggestion, due to which, the exposure to the type of cancer might be preconditioned by the wood smoke tendency (Fonseca-Moutinho, 2014). The authors deduced that DNA mechanism implications, which show the susceptibility to cancer, include HPV infection likability. Moreover, the study discussed some basic social co-factors, which often come together with HPV contamination since some specialists claim that cancer of the cervix can not be predetermined exclusively by smoking. Therefore, the article provides a solid practical foundation for the analysis of HPV infection.

Demographic Background of the HPV Contamination Occurrence

The research study employs several evidence-based works, which explore the social and demographic platforms for cervical cancer occurrence. The use of these studies evolves from the suggestion, according to which sexually-transmitted diseases stem from the peculiarities of lifestyles, income characteristics, etc. The research study by Beral (2015), “Cancer of the cervix: A sexually transmitted infection?” discusses the implications of temporal concerns, geographic implications, and occupational parameters on the basis of analyzing the cervical cancer mortality in such countries as England, Scotland, and Wales. The time frame of the investigation explores the period after 1940. Thus, the supporting article refers to the exploration of the disease occurrence in the developed regions. In contrast to it, the article by Denny (2015), “Control of cancer of the cervix in low- and middle-income countries,” discusses the primary characteristics of HPV infection in the countries of the third world. The study focuses on the statistic data, which reflects cancer of the cervix in Sub-Saharan regions of Africa. The description revealed that 85% of cervical cancer occurrence refers to the developing countries (Denny, 2015). Moreover, the work explores the available prevention and disease detention programs, which impact the quality of cancer treatment. Finally, the reference to the research study by Miller et al. (2015), “Evaluation of the natural history of cancer of the cervix, implications for prevention. The cancer risk management – human papillomavirus and cervical components,” provides the solutions to the problem of cervical cancer management. Specifically, it discusses the ways, in which one may regulate the basic HPV infection, according to the demographic peculiarities of the region.

Synthesis of Research and Proposal: Cancer Screening Renovation

In this part of the work, the diagnosis of cancer of the cervix, as well as the complex of prevention initiatives, is analyzed. The question evolved from the deficiency of the discussed study by Denny (2015), “Control of cancer of the cervix in low- and middle-income countries.” Specifically, one may deduce that the mentioned work explored the tendencies of cancer management as well as the supervision of the basic control programs, which exist in the countries of the third world. Thus, the paper identifies that there are few National Cancer Centers in Africa, which register the occurrence data on the problem of cervical cancer. The authors of the study identify that the collection of population-based records plays a critical role in the analysis of the clinical situation. Despite the research work provided some significant recommendations on the creation of subsidiary medical programs, the article does not discuss any provisions for screening the disease on the individual level.

The proposal discusses a step-by-step implementation of the local cancer prevention programs in the developing countries. The female health screening system refers incorporates several critical stages. First, it should be suggested to employ the fundamental testing obligation, which would be passed in the clinical settings and would be sponsored by the state budget fund. Due to the high rates of cervical cancer occurrence in the countries of the third world, it is suggested to include Pap test in a set of annual clinical procedures. Moreover, the public health initiatives might implement the program of test reminding, which deliver official notices on the obligation to take the test to females from the developing countries. The scientific analysis of the screening results has to be embraced by the National Cancer Centers. Thus, it is recommended to calculate the rates of HPV infection occurrence at the end of every year so that to trace whether the imposed program is successful.

Secondly, the global cancer control initiatives have to comply with the understanding of the problem. It is claimed that females from the countries of the third world are not aware of the significance of multiple health concerns. The factor is connected with the fact that women from poor countries rarely have access to education. Thus, females from Asian states are perceived as housewives and have no rights to enter professional careers; African women are mostly engaged in the agricultural sphere. Therefore, there is little need to expose women to the learning practices in such countries. The low awareness provokes neglectful attitude to personal health in females. Consequently, it is important to stimulate some changes in the sphere of education before suggesting cancer screening. Still, the process of educational improvement may be quite enduring. That is why, it is suggested to organize short medical workshops for females interim. The basic ramifications for health improvement in women are stipulated not only by learning implications but by the general lifestyle characteristics as well. The discussed study on tobacco effects revealed that widespread poverty features, as well as smoking and exposing one’s health to stresses and family problems, might contribute to the growth of cervical cancer occurrence. Therefore, it is important to introduce the programs, which would screen emotional and psychological health of females in the developing countries so that to verify the disease against the subsidiary life conditions.

Finally, the central issue of screening development refers to the wide employment of cytology-based tools and diagnosis facilities. The developing countries rarely operate the necessary financial resources, which might be directed to cancer screening sphere. That is why, it is significant to eliminate the barrier of infrastructure development in such states. The initiative may be supported with the help of international investment groups and global funds. The costs have to be focused on the means of Pap smears facilities transportation. The medical centers in developing countries are often situated far from the homes of rural districts. Therefore, many females have no opportunities to pass Pap tests in laboratory settings. That is why, it is offered to provide the connection between the citizens of non-accessible areas and the medical centers by means of introducing mobilized testing facilities. The critical challenge, in this case, is the delivery and processing of results in specialized establishments since the process requires supporting two side communication between the community and public health domain. Therefore, it is suggested to allocate some costs for the improvement of cell phone and web connections in the local settings of the third world countries.

The final concern, which provides some limitations to cervical cancer detention, relates to the issue of infection eradication. The medical research studies prove that, today, the basic cancer elimination may be sustained without any substantial cost expenditures. However, the effective treatment employs the new method of colposcopic assessment and loop excision electrosurgical procedure (LEEP). At the moment, the innovative methodologies are not developed in the poor countries. Therefore, the screening renovation has to promote a systematic reformation of the clinical approaches to cervix cancer treatment.


American Cancer Society. (2015). Web.

Beral, V. (2015). Cancer of the cervix: A sexually transmitted infection? Cancer Epidemiology, 39(6), 1148-1151.

Cervical Cancer Health Center. (2014). Web.

Denny, L. (2015). Control of cancer of the cervix in low- and middle-income countries. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 22(3), 728-733.

Fonseca-Moutinho, J. (2014). Smoking and cervical cancer. International Scholarly Research Notices Obstetrics and Gynecology, 11(1), 15-33.

Miller, A., Gribble, S., Nadeau, C., Asakawa, K., Flanagan, W., & Wolfson, M. (2015). Evaluation of the natural history of cancer of the cervix, implications for prevention. The cancer risk management – human papillomavirus and cervical components. Journal of Cancer Policy, 4(1), 1-6.

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